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The Modules package provides for the dynamic modification of the user's environment via modulefiles. Each modulefile contains the information needed to configure the shell for an application. Once the Modules package is initialized, the environment can be modified on a per-module basis using the module command which interprets modulefiles. Modulefiles may be shared by many users on a system and users may have their own set to supplement or replace the shared modulefiles. The modulefiles are added to and removed from the current environment by the user. The environment changes contained in a modulefile can be summarized through the module command as well.

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: WT2015: How to write Linux/Unix man pages (quick and dirty method)

man command in Linux with Examples

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I'm trying to run a find command for all JavaScript files, but how do I exclude a specific directory? Use the -prune switch. For example, if you want to exclude the misc directory just add a -path. Here we exclude dir1 , dir2 and dir3 , since in find expressions it is an action that acts on the criteria -path dir1 -o -path dir2 -o -path dir3 if dir1 or dir2 or dir3 , ANDed with type -d.

Important Note: the paths you type after -path must exactly match what find would print without the exclusion. See note [1] if you'd like a better understanding. This is then grouped as a single expression with the escaped parenthesis, and prefixed with -not which will make find skip anything that was matched by that expression. One might ask if adding -not will not make all other files hidden by -prune reappear, and the answer is no.

The way -prune works is that anything that, once it is reached, the files below that directory are permanently ignored. This comes from an actual use case, where I needed to call yui-compressor on some files generated by wintersmith, but leave out other files that need to be sent as-is.

There is clearly some confusion here as to what the preferred syntax for skipping a directory should be. From the GNU find man page. Just specifying -not -path will still descend into the skipped directory, but -not -path will be false whenever find tests each file. Results are below. Both f10bit's syntax and Daniel C. Sobral's syntax took ms to run on average.

GetFree's syntax , which doesn't use -prune , took ms. So, yes this is a rather extreme example, but if you care about run time and are doing anything remotely intensive you should use -prune. Note Daniel C. Sobral's syntax performed the better of the two -prune syntaxes; but, I strongly suspect this is the result of some caching as switching the order in which the two ran resulted in the opposite result, while the non-prune version was always slowest.

One option would be to exclude all results that contain the directory name with grep. For example:. The '-type d -name proc -prune' only look for directories named proc to exclude. The '-o' is an 'OR' operator. The tricky part is that find is very particular about the order of the arguments, so if you don't get them just right, your command may not work.

The order of arguments is generally as such:. The -path -prune approach also works with wildcards in the path. Here is a find statement that will find the directories for a git server serving multiple git repositiories leaving out the git internal directories:. But maybe you should use a regular expression , if there are many directories to exclude. There are plenty of good answers, it just took me some time to understand what each element of the command was for and the logic behind it.

Any directory or file that is not the. But they will be tested against the second expression. When find reaches the. So the -prune option will be applied to it. It tells the find command to not explore that directory. So any file or directory in. For example, But it will also print the print the full path of each directory one is skipping, as noted above. However, the following does not, This binds it to the right part of the -or clause due to boolean order of operations and associativity.

But the docs say there's a hidden -print if it or any of its cousins So why isn't the left part of the -or printing? Apparently and I didn't understand this from my first reading the man page , that is true if there there is no -print -or -exec ANYWHERE, in which case, -print is logically sprinkled around such that everything gets printed.

If even ONE print -style operation is expressed in any clause, all those hidden logical ones go away and you get only what you specify. Now frankly, I might have preferred it the other way around, but then a find with only descriptive operators would apparently do nothing, so I guess it makes sense as it is. As mentioned above, this all works with -exec as well, so the following gives a full ls -la listing for each file with the desired extension, but not listing the first level of each hidden directory, For me and others on this thread , find syntax gets pretty baroque pretty quickly, so I always throw in parens to make SURE I know what binds to what, so I usually create a macro for type-ability and form all such statements as It's hard to go wrong by setting up the world into two parts this way.

You can find detailed instructions and examples in Linux find command exclude directories from searching. To effectively use the find I believe that it is imperative to have a good understanding of your file system directory structure. On my home computer I have multi-TB hard drives, with about half of that content backed up using rsnapshot i.

Among the approached variously suggested in this thread How to exclude a directory in find. Let's say I want to find the system file libname-server The other solution offered in this thread SO also performs poorly:. Here, I want to exclude a nested directory, e. Aside: Adding -print at the end of the command suppresses the printout of the excluded directory:. I was using find to provide a list of files for xgettext , and wanted to omit a specific directory and its contents.

I tried many permutations of -path combined with -prune but was unable to fully exclude the directory which I wanted gone. Although I was able to ignore the contents of the directory which I wanted ignored, find then returned the directory itself as one of the results, which caused xgettext to crash as a result doesn't accept directories; only files.

My solution was to simply use grep -v to skip the directory that I didn't want in the results:. Using grep was a quick and easy solution after some headache. I have found this here. For those of you on older versions of UNIX who cannot use -path or -not. For what I needed it worked like this, finding landscape. The exec I tried command above, but none of those using "-prune" works for me. Eventually I tried this out with command below:.

If You have a problem with find, use the -D tree option to view the expression analysis information. Learn more. How to exclude a directory in find. Asked 9 years, 6 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times. Here is the find code we're using.

What's the directory you need to exclude? It's better to use find Also, it's better to accept and upvote answers. Nov 17 '10 at Names with spaces are split, which we don't want. Active Oldest Votes. Further action is -o print , just print.

Peter Cordes k 29 29 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. This doesn't work for me either as it will include the ignored directory ". Theuni It probably didn't work for you because you didn't add a -print or any other action explicitly after -name. In that case, both "sides" of -o end up printing, whereas if you use -print , only that side prints. Sobral May 16 '13 at From manpage: Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

So, how do I go about deleting with find if I want to exclude specific directories from the deletion? To remove the entire directory itself from the results use: find. This question and the confusion in the answers is a manifest on how badly the find user interface matches onto what people need. Mateen Ulhaq GetFree GetFree One of the comments in the accepted answer points out the problem. Great answer. I'd add to this that you can exclude a directory at ANY level by changing the first. It still traverses all of the unwanted directory, though.

I'm adding my own answer.

bash(1) - Linux man page

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Linux man Command Tutorial for Beginners (8 Examples)

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. Note: This applies to Centos 7. If you are looking for a Debian answer, see this question. Those answers will not be duplicated here. In order to use the man command, you must also install the man package before or after the man-pages one. It works fine this way. As pointed out by R. S , the CentOS official Docker images have manual page installation disabled.

What are man pages?

The manual covers various methods to use device, safety procedures and troubleshooting tips. When it comes to computers you rarely, if ever, get a physical manual. Short for manual pages , the man pages are a type of document that provides details on using various commands and applications. Man pages are super simple to use and can help you learn without Google!

If site is specified then lftp will connect to that site otherwise a connection has to be established with the open command.

Privacy Terms. Quick links. CentOS7 online man pages General support questions. I would like to go over all of them, make notes, learn about Linux.

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A man page short for manual page is a form of software documentation usually found on a Unix or Unix-like operating system. Topics covered include computer programs including library and system calls , formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts. A user may invoke a man page by issuing the man command.

By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I'm trying to run a find command for all JavaScript files, but how do I exclude a specific directory? Use the -prune switch. For example, if you want to exclude the misc directory just add a -path.

grep(1) - Linux man page

A very useful aspect of the Linux command line is that the documentation for almost all command line tools is easily accessible. These documents are known as man pages, and you can easily access them through the command line using the man command. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basics of man using some easy to understand examples. But before we do that, it's worth mentioning that all examples in this article have been tested on Ubuntu The man command gives users access to manual pages for command line utilities and tools. Following is the syntax of this command:.

Use manpath to see the directories used by your system, and man --where --all foo to find a specific manual page of foo. The standard location is /usr/share/man  3 answers.

Section-num : Since a manual is divided into multiple sections so this option is used to display only a specific section of a manual. So this option gives the section in which the given command is present. In this example you can move through the manual pages sections i.

5 Ways to Find a ‘Binary Command’ Description and Location on File System

Therefore, in this article we will explain to you five useful commands for showing a short description and the location of a given command. To discover new commands on your system look into all the directories in your PATH environmental variable. Once you find an interesting command name, before you proceed to read more about it probably in the man page, try to gather some shallow information about it as follows. If the description is too long some parts are trimmed of by default, use the -l flag to show a complete description.

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Comments: 2
  1. Fenridal

    What would you began to do on my place?

  2. Gamuro

    Paraphrase please

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